|1. Description and History
The Standard Schnauzer is the medium sized member of the Schnauzer family, or as owners of the breed like to observe the standard sized model. Of the three distinct types the Standard is the original. The breed has a long history, dating back at least into the fifteenth century as a fixed type. Artist, Albert Durer owned at least one as they appeared in a number of his paintings in the late 1400s. Rembrant also painted several Standard Schnauzers. They appear in statues and tapestries throughout Germany showing the dog as a trusted companion and guard dog. Merchants and tradesmen used the Schnauzer to protect their wagons as they traveled the countryside. They were small and compact enough to not take up much room but fierce enough to repulse wood-be thieves. Also shop owners and farmers found the dogs abilities as ratters to be useful. Quick, agile and intelligent made for a loyal companion and useful working dog.
Ancestry of the Schnauzer is a bit of a question. The word Schnauzer first appeared in dog literature in 1842 when Jeremias Gotthelf used it as a synonym for the Wired-haired Pinscher. The Wired-haired Pinscher was accepted as a pure breed around 1850. The word pinscher was used to describe terriers in general. Besides Schnauzer, the breed was also referred to as Rauhaar Pinscher (rough-haired terrier), or Rattenfanger (rat catcher). In Youatts works on dogs (1852), Youatt believed that the breed was a cross between the Bolognesehund (dog of Bologne) and the gray Wolfspitz. He described some typical features as the coat is rough and stands off the back. The face is also covered with hairs that stand off and they are longer around the muzzle and look like a beard. Often the ears are cropped and the tail is docked.
A Viennese zoologist, Fitzinger (1802-1884) describes the breed as a cross between the Dog of Bologne and the Spitz. A later cross of the German Black Poodle and the Gray Wolfspitz upon the German Pinscher stock produced the type seen at his time. He described the face as furnished with shaggy hair which is longer and almost beard-like around the muzzle and said that not infrequently the ears and tail are cropped.
Richard Strebel, a foremost dog authority as well as animal artist, breeder, and judge of dogs wrote in 1906 that both Smooth and Rough-coated Pinschers were first mentioned and described by Dr. H. G. Reichenbach in 1836. Reichenbach described the Rough-coated Pinscher as a cross between Poodle and Pug, for the most part gray or reddish, mostly thinner than the Poodle. He mentioned the breeds trait of grasping things with its paws. Strebel disagreed with Youatt and Fitzinger about the breed being descending from the Bolognesehund. He agreed that the Spitz was a ancestor. He also agreed with Reichenbach saying, I remember from the beginnings of Pinscher breeding around 1878, that in the early litters there were always many Boxer-type pups that were gold-red with black masks and mostly Pug tails. It took quite a long while until these unwelcome guests disappeared.
It may be that more than one of the theories is correct and dogs from the varied lines were subsequently crossed to produce the Standard Schnauzer as we know it. The Schnauzer emerged as a sturdy, square-built dog, strong and alert, with a stiff wiry coat, bushy eyebrows, and bearded muzzle.
In 1878 the first German Kennel Club was founded and regular shows held. At the Third German International Show in Hanover (1879), Wire-haired Pinschers were shown for the first time. A dog named Schnauzer from the Wurttemberg Kennels in Leonburg won first prize. Also winning second prizes were Betti and Anni.
In 1880 the first standard for the Wired-haired German Pinscher was published. It is interesting to note the differences from the present day standard, although it is depicting the same breed it would be hard to imagine many of the recent show winning Standard Schnauzers being bred to conform to the 1880 version.
General Appearance: Attitude curious and bold like the shorthaired terriers. Always on the alert, without making unnecessary noise.
Head: Very conspicuous stop. Eye middlesized, round and with sharp expression.
Body: Back moderately arched.
Coat: Hard as possible, in rough uneven tufts over the whole outline of the body. Ears short and covered with soft hair.
Color: Rust-yellow or grey-yellow. Head, feet and underparts lighter or greyish white. Also blackish, iron-grey or silver-grey, either one color or with yellow-brown or light yellow markings over the eyes, on the muzzle and legs like the Dachshund. Also acceptable: one tone flaxenblond, also dull greyish white with black spots.
Look at the color variation in the Schnauzers of the day, the hair tufts, arched backs, and conspicuous stop, all unheard of in todays dogs. It is obvious that many changes occurred since then. The first change can be attributed to Max Hartenstein of the Plavia kennel. He raised the status of the Schnauzer to fashionable show dog when he founded his large Schnauzer kennel in 1882 and successfully showed at the big shows. In 1885 Hartenstein also became interested in blacks and did well in the shows along with the various gray shades and fawn with reddish tinted dogs of his breeding.
Another change came with G. Goller of Stuttgart. He was a smaller breeder but well-known for his true salt and pepper coats on his Schnauzers. He started breeding in 1886 and by the 90s he was exhibiting occasional Schnauzers with clear salt and pepper coats. It was a well guarded secret for many years until he divulged that he bred blacks to reddish-coated dogs to produce an occasional salt and pepper dog. From these he had his foundation stock and the salt and pepper color was established, by 1900 it was the clear color choice for the Standard Schnauzer.
The third major change in the breed is contributed to Carl Thilo of Heilbronn. He bred dogs from the Goller line and began his kennel in 1890. From his foundation stock and with careful breeding he established a line with the emphasis on handsome heads, prominent eyebrows, heavy beards, and presents. His dogs had type and elegance.
From these three, along with other smaller breeders that followed the ideas set down by these gentlemen the Standard Schnauzer was molded into what we see today. A elegant, alert, salt and pepper dog with fashionable head and beard that was well received in the show ring.
3. History in America
The first Standard Schnauzer registered in the United States was a dog named Norwood Victor (77886) by Schnauzer x Schnauzerl from the Norwod kennels of Philadelphia, PA. He was listed by the AKC in 1904 as a pepper and salt dog, whelped 7/23/1901 and won 1st open, New York and Philadelphia. There were also unconfirmed reports of Standards being shown in the Miscellaneous Class at Westminster and other shows in the late 1800s but Victor is credited as the first registered. Large scale importation didnt occur until after World War I.
The first reported import was a dog named Fingel, brought to the U.S. by Mr. B. Leisching of Rochester NY in 1905. Fingel was a dog out of the line bred by G. Goller of Stuttgart.
In the early 20s a rather small group of breeders started to import Schnauzers on a larger scale. Mrs. Nion Tucker (Tuckaway), Mr. & Mrs. Maurice Newton (Champaqua), Mr. George D. Sloane (Brookmeade), Mr. Frank Spiekerman (Hitofa), Mr. William D. Goff (Sunny Acres), Mr. N. Morris (Adlerskopf), Mr. Harry Haskell (Halowell), and Mr. H. C. Lust (Elenor) became the backbone of the breed. Most dogs of todays domestic breeding can trace their lines back to these few prominent kennels. There are many good articles on these early breeders and the Standard Schnauzer bloodline's including one in the SSCA Sourcebook Vol. II that makes for interesting reading to those of us who like to follow pedigrees and lineages.
In 1925 the Standard Schnauzer had its first American Champion, Ch. Resy Patrica, a Swiss import. The first American Breed Champion was a Patrica daughter, Ch. Fracas Franconia out of Swiss import Ch. Fracasse du Jordat. A head study of Fracasse appeared in the January 1925 issue of the Gazette, that same year the formation of the breed club was established. The new breed standard also appeared in that issue of the Gazette. A copy of that standard is published in the SSCA Sourcebook vol. III, it is much more detailed than the 1880 version and closer to the present version although there are some major differences when compared to the standard we use today. The greatest difference is in the proportion of the head to body. The standard allows for a longer back, with the head to be 1/3 the length of the back. Also the size is smaller, accepted size is 15 3/4 inches to 19 3/4 inches, with no differences between the males and females. One other difference accepts the black with tan coloration, other colors beside the pepper and salt and black are faulted.
The Schnauzer was then in the Working group and doing well in the ring. Resy Patrica won BOB at Westminster. Group wins went to Clea Gamundia (first group win on record), Bella v St. Johanntor, Fred Gamundia, Butz Saldan and Claus v Furstenwall (Claus was the first National Specialty winner). Fred, Claus and Butz also went on to go Best in Show.
In 1926 the Standard Schnauzer (still called the Wire-haired Pinscher and Pinscher at times) changed from the Working group to the Terrier group, but there must have been some confusion as records of Schnauzers winning in both groups are reported. No one seems to know why the Schnauzer moved from the Working group to the Terrier group but it was bringing about type changes in the breed that caused some concern to breeders. It seems there must have been quite a number of dogs present at the shows leading to a high number of dogs needed to be present to get the points, four were needed to get a single point, ten to get a three point major, and twenty to make a five point. Competition was keen and the breed was doing well with a number of Schnauzers winning groups and Best of Shows.
In 1929 the minimum height for the Standard Schnauzer was raised from 15 3/4 to 16 3/4. The schnauzers were getting larger but there were troubles during the period. Anne FitzGerald writes in 1930 in a GAZETTE column that there had been no specialty since 1927. Anti-cropping laws had become a major conflict in the SCA (Schnauzer Club of America, both Minis and Standards were combined at this time), entries at the shows were down. Those in power favored the English position against cropping, while many others, especially in the mid-west and California preferred the German tradition of cropping. In 1931 the A.K.C. canceled the wins of all cropped dogs born after September 1, 1929. Many cropped their Schnauzers and didnt show in protest. The matter caused bad feelings in the club until a 1933 rule change allowed cropped and uncropped dogs to be shown equally as long as state laws permitted. The bickering unsettled the breed and the prominence held in the group ring and for Best in Show was lost.
In 1933 the SCA was dissolved and two new clubs formed so that each size of schnauzer could be awarded BOBs in accordance with new A.K.C. guidelines. The Standard Schnauzer Club of America was born with separate registration from the American Miniature Schnauzer Club, William Goff (Sunny Acres) was the first president. The Standard finally had its own identity. American Breed dogs were becoming the bulk of the entries at shows. Smaller kennels and owner-handlers were replacing the wealthy sportsman and professional handlers. The breed had developed its character as a true working dog and loyal family pet, the breed needs an abundance of human companionship and love. He is a robust, high-spirited dog that lives to please his owner if given the praise and support of an understanding owner.
4. The Club
The objectives of the Standard Schnauzer Club of America as written by Ellen Yamada, along time member of the SSCA are as follows:
The Objects of the Club are:
a. to define the standard of the breed and to urge members and breeders to accept the AKC standard for judging and breeding;
b. to promote the Standard Schnauzer as a show dog, obedience dog, family dog, and guard dog;
c. to popularize the breed with the general public by providing information and news concerning breeding, care, training and showing;
d. to protect and advance the interest in the breed by encouraging sportsman ship;
e. to conduct AKC licensed Specialty shows and Obedience trials;
f. to encourage and foster the establishment of Regional Clubs for the better ment of the breed.
These objectives have served as a guideline for the members from the time the Club was first started to present times, and all have worked very hard to fulfill these objectives.
The first Schnauzer Club of America was called the Wirehaired Pinscher Club, founded in 1925. It included both Standard and Miniature Schnauzers. George D. Sloane was the first president.
The Standard Schnauzer Club of America was born in the year 1933 when the mother club, the Wirehaired Pinscher Club was divided so that the Miniatures and Standards could be registered and shown separately. There were 58 total members in the two clubs at the time of their division leaving few members in either the Standard Schnauzer Club of America or the American Miniature Schnauzer Club. Mr. William D. Goff was the first president of the SSCA. There were no records kept in the first two years of the SSCA and so little is known. The minutes of the 1935 meeting indicate that the club was inactive. That year Winifrede Atkinson and five other members took action and decided to re-activate the National Club while attending the Specialty in Chicago. They notified the AKC that the old officers and governors had abandoned their offices and an election was held for new officers. Raymond Schultz of Illinois became the new President in 1936 and a redrafting of the Constitution and By-laws soon followed. The membership listed only 23 individuals.
The Constitution for the SSCA is short and covers rules for membership, offices and governors, the AKC delegate, meetings, elections, regional clubs, committees, bulletin, and orders of business. It has been revised over the years as to keep up with the times and to make the club run more effectively. Major changes since the original 1935 Constitution came in 1965, 1973, and 1982. The 1965 rule change allowed business to be conducted by mail making it easier for more members to be involved in the business of the club. Also a new Breed Standard was being formulated in committee. At that time the Annual meeting was coupled with the National Specialty and rotated among the three major centers of activity, East coast, Mid-West, and the West coast. This way most members could attend the Annual meeting and Specialty at least once every three years. In 1973 a Regional Council was set up to assist the national club in responding to the matters of the Regional Clubs and to assist in the formation of new Regional clubs. In the 80s the election process was revised so that officers would take office in January, coinciding with the the calender year. This helped simplify things for the general membership.
Membership to the SSCA has grown steadily since the formation of the club in the early 1900s. If there were only 58 members between the SSCA and AMSC we can safely assume less than half belonged to the SSCA. From that handful we have grown, membership toped 100 for the first time in 1966 and was over the 500 mark in1984, today there are over 700 members and still growing strong. Numbers dont always mean quality but the SSCA has some of the best members around. Many are willing to help a new member with the thousand little questions associated with getting a new Standard Schnauzer. The core of this club lies in the governing body. The SSCA consists of a President, a 1st and 2nd Vice President, Secretary, Treasurer, and a Board of Directors that consist of six members serving a two year term. To further serve the membership the SSCA has several Committees in operation. More than 25 committees are in action covering such things as, Annual awards, Breed standard, Genetic anomalies, Breeder referral, and Obedience to name a few.
On a more local level there are a number of Regional clubs that are recognized and actively encouraged by the SSCA. Many have been around for years and coincide with the hotbeds of Standard Schnauzer activity. These include the Minuteman SSC in Massachusetts, Knickerbocker SSC in New York, Potomac Valley SSC in Maryland, SSC of Cincinnati in Ohio, SSC of Northern California, and SSC of Southern California. As the membership has spread, new Regional clubs have developed as clusters of active Standard Schnauzer owners organize and form. These Regional clubs have their own governing bodies, they hold meetings, have matches, host Regional specialties and promote the breed on a local basis. They are an extension of the SSCA and are expected to follow the same ethical objectives as the mother club.
In 1980 the SSCA and its board of governors approved a code of ethics that all members are urged to adhere to. It is a guideline that all Standard Schnauzer owners should follow in order to assure the quality of the breed.
Code of Ethics
Standard Schnauzer Club of America
I will maintain high standards of health and care for my dogs.
I will comply with AKC rules and regulations.
I will make every effort to learn about the structure, anatomy, action, inherited traits, and behavior of the dog; especially where such learning applies to working breeds and specifically to the Standard Schnauzer.
I will breed only to try to improve the breed.
I will use or give service to only registered stock that is physically and temperamentally sound and in good health. They shall be free from any serious inherited abnormalities which affect health and soundness. all stock will be radiographed free of hip dysplasia and will have an OFA number, or if under two years of age radiographed by a competent veterinarian.
REGISTRATION AND SALES
I will sell only healthy animals and proper temperament. Each animal will be accompanied by a current health certificate, a three generation pedigree, a feeding and care sheet and registration papers, where applicable.
I will encourage spays, castration and vasectomies for all stock not purchased for breeding.
In advertising, I will be truthful and informative.
I will not sell or dispose of any dog through pet shops, wholesalers, commercial dealers or paid agents.
I will avoid using, except with written permission, a suffix or prefix associated with a recognized with a recognized Standard Schnauzer breeder.
Finally, I will use the official standard of the breed when evaluating and breeding my own stock, and encourage its application in judging.
In 1957 the SSCA started a bulletin, edited by Mrs. Gert Adler to communicate to the members about what was going on in the club. The bulletin grew into a bimonthly magazine by 1966 under the hand of Gloria Cory. The Pepper N Salt, as it was and is called, was a publication of the highest quality boasting shiny silver covers with beautiful photographs of the top winning dogs of 70s and 80s. In 1971 the magazine became a quarterly publication due to high cost to the club and demand on a editor. Mary Sutter served briefly as editor, then Penny Duffee took over. Penny became SSCA President in 1994. Other editors include Joy Pekovitch and Dorothy and John Pazereskis. In the Fall of 1984 the shiny silver cover was replaced by a grey paper stock as a cost reduction measure. Due to better reproduction methods the photography seemed very sharp on the covers (possibly better than todays covers). Another change came in 1987 when the size of the Pepper N Salt changed form 7" by 8.5" to 8.5" by 11". This added much room to the magazine at a little cost. The standard paper size was less expensive for publishers to print. Photographs could be reproduced much larger so the members could get a closer look at the hot dogs. The cover paper went from grey to white at this time with annual award and specialty winners being put on the front and back cover on a rotating basis. The publication is still of the highest quality and something the club can be quite proud of.
In 1977 the Club started to publish a Newsletter between the issues of the Pepper N Salt to give additional information to the club members. This allowed the members to keep up to date on matters of club business and show wins. It also allowed for the publication of much of the nuts and bolts material to be printed at a fraction of the cost of its addition in the Pepper N Salt. Although there are no photos or advertisements the publication is very informative and necessary.
One of the reasons I undertook this book project was that there is very little written about the Standard Schnauzer. If you did not know about the SSCA there is little besides a 1966 book written by Hamilton and Joan Hertz called How to Raise and Train a Standard Schnauzer. It is well written and shows some of the legends of the Standard Schnauzer world, but well out of date. If you want to go back even further there are two books written in the 30s about the breed. History of the Schnauzer and Miniature Schnauzer by Joseph Schwabacher, translated from German and The Schnauzer Book, Past and Present of the Breed edited by Anne FitzGerald. If you can translate German there are a couple books about the Standard Schnauzer that I have. Schnauzer und Pinscher was written in 1970. Pinscher - Schnauzer Klub 1895 - 1970 (PSK) was written in 1975. I can pick out a few words and the pictures are good, there are even a few examples of Richard Strebels Schnauzer drawings but most people wouldnt get much information out of them. Luckily the SSCA has put out some very informative literature.
There are three Source Books that have been published by the SSCA, much of the information for this book has been gathered from them. The first was published in 1968 under committee headed by Patricia Korn and Helen Boynton. Volume II was published in 1973 also by committee, Hugh S and Susanne Murray were editor and co-editor. Both these books are invaluable to Standard Schnauzer enthusiest with a hunger for knowledge but sadly out of print. If enough interest arises I am sure the SSCA will reprint these wonderful Source Books again in the future. The third Source Book is still in print, it was printed in 1983 and edited by Arden C. Holst. This was a large undertaking and required a large committee to get the job done, but the end product was a very well written book ( if you happen to glance under Contributing artists you will see I had a part in the project). All three are packed full of pictures and information. In a move to keep the Source Book as up to date as possible the SSCA now periodically makes updates in a notebook fashion. Every few years new pages can be added to update leading producers and Specialty winners. Its nice to keep abreast of show wins but you dont get much in the way of breed history, bloodline's, foreign trends, or club business. Also non club members have no way of obtaining this material in book form.
In 1977 the SSCA published a booklet on grooming and a pamphlet on the breed and club. The Grooming Guide gave stripping instructions for the care of the Standard Schnauzers coat. Burton Yamada was the head of the committee with the illustrations done by Lori Bush. The Standard Schnauzer, a pamphlet with breed and club information was edited by John Wood.
A very beautiful booklet called The Standard Schnauzer Illustrated was printed in 1978 and recognized it for its excellence by the AKC. The text follows the breed standard step by step with comments and explanations by Mary Schofield. The illustration is done by Gail Mackiernan and really helps show how the Standard Schnauzer is supposed to look according to the standard. Gail uses transparent overlays of a schnauzer over a illustration of the bone structure to show how the outward appearance of the Standard Schnauzer is effected by the structure underneath. It is very well done and every Standard Schnauzer breeder and exhibitor should have a copy and reread it often.
In 1995 the long awaited grooming video was released showing how to groom a Standard Sccnauzer in detail. It is a very welcome addition to the Standard Schnauzer library. Learning first hand from one of the masters is the best method for grooming the show animal but having the video as a guide is much better than the trial by error method when learning the ins and outs ot the Standard Schnauzer coat. There are plans to follow up the video with other videos on the care of the Standard Schnauzer and possibly puppy care among others in the near future. Hopefully they will include obedience training and breeding. In this high tech world I imagine most of the knowledge we will get on the breed will be either on video or computer. I hope there will always be a place for the drawings and paintings of the beautiful dog we know as the Standard Schnauzer.
5. The Blacks
If the Standard Schnauzer is a relatively rare breed, then the Black Standard Schnauzer would have to be considered a real scarcity. There are a few kennels in the country that raise these beautiful members of the breed, to see a good one at a dog show is a real delight. The blacks as a whole are a bit different from the pepper and salt dogs. The black gene is a dominate one so you would think that over time the black would become the predominate color as in the Giant Schnauzers. Not so. Most die-hard black breeders will only breed black to black, it seems that if you cross to pepper and salt you get bad coats. The coat on a black dog is different from the pepper and salt in most cases. The hairs are usually softer and tend to curl as they grow, it is very difficult to find that nice rotating coat that is in the pepper and salt lines. Then why not breed to the pepper and salt to improve the coat? Some do, but you often end up with blacks that have white hair in their coat or a mixture of hard and soft coat. The resulting dog is in question of what he or she will produce in subsequent breedings. You have lost the purely dominant gene for color and the coat would be totally mysterious. The black breeders are better off in developing from within the black gene pool. Using the dogs with the best coats we will eventually see blacks with coats rivaling the Pepper and salts. For now the pepper and salts have an advantage over the blacks in the show ring. It is difficult for the blacks to compete against their pepper and salt brothers, perhaps that is why there are more pepper and salt Standard Schnauzer exhibitors. Exhibitors want to win and its only common sense to show a dog with an advantage. In Germany the blacks are shown separatly with titles for each color, if that were done here it wouldnt be long before there were two distinct breeds instead of one breed with two color variations. Another tendency in most blacks is that they are lighter boned and lack the furnishings, especially in the rear. If you can breed a short backed, well boned and furnished black Standard Schnauzer with substance and personality, you would have what every Black Standard Schnauzer is hoping to produce. Every year you can see improvement in the blacks, it wont be long before they will compete equally with the pepper and salt dogs.
If you look closely at some of Richard Strebels drawings of the early Standard Schnauzers you might think some were blacks. Cito v. d. Werneburg is drawn very dark and even Champion Sepel looks like he may have been black. Apparently there have been blacks as long as there have been pepper and salts.
The one dog that seems to dominate black bloodline's in Europe and the United States is International Champion Emir v. d. Groben. He was breed in the early 50s to various dogs of the Ahorntal and Muldental lines to produce the foundations of almost all the black lines in the world. One particular breeding to Lonni v. d. Thuringerpforte, a line breed bitch of the Olaf v. Muldental line, produced three sisters of importance to the blacks in the breed. Askaris Alue, Askaris Aga, and Askaris Anka are the three girls that most black kennels are founded on.
Alue founded the black line, Basalteck in Europe. She produced Monna, Meister, and Merry v. Basalteck by Igo v. Ahorntal and Sieg, Sula, and Timm v. Basalteck by Astor v. d. Bruchwiese. All beautiful show winning blacks and important producers. They produced such winners as Voss, Valla, and Wacker v. Basalteck. Wella and Wido v. Basalteck. Eddie and Edda v. Furstenpfad, the foundation for the Furstenpfad blacks. The Geflugelhof kennel owes this generation for its black line and the American v. Volken kennel for Cito v. Volken who is a Sula son.
Aga went to Switzerland to found the Barbanera line. She was also breed to Igo v. Ahorntal and produced many Barbanera dogs throughout Europe. Her most famous offspring would have been Int. Ch. Trix Barbanera who produced Int. Ch. Yris Barbanera.
Anka produced Udo v. Basalteck who came to America to found the blacks of the Patundlis kennel and with it a substantial number of blacks here in the United States.
Emir v. d. Groben also sired a number of other offspring that influenced the blacks in Europe. Such kennels as Autohof, Voma, and Gengelbach all had Emir sire top winning and producing blacks for their kennels.
You cant write about the Black Standard Schnauzer in America in the last 30 years without including a bit about the top winning black, International Ch. Pavo de la Steingasse. Pavo was born in Blotzheim, France in 1966. He was brought to America as a puppy from the Krayenrain kennel in Switzerland by Mrs. Margaret S. Smith to found the Skibo kennel. Looking at Pavos pedigree you see the impact of Emir, as the prominence of many of the Basalteck and Barbanera dogs listed above are evident. Pavo had a astounding show career. He was Best of Breed more than 75 times, with 5 Group Ones and more than 30 other Group placings, he went BOB at two consecutive National Specialties. He also won the Working group at the prestigious Westminster Kennel Club Show, a honor that no other Standard Schnauzer has done until the recent win and subsiquint BIS by the import, Ch. Parsifall Di Casa Netzer in 1997. Pavo is the only black to ever win a National Specialty, or, as far as I know, win a Group One. He was also shown to his Championship in Mexico and completed his International Championship.
Pavos influence as a stud dog is equally as impressive as his show record. In his lifetime, breed exclusively to blacks, he produced 14 champion offspring. He is one of the very few blacks to be included in the leading producers list compiled by the SSCA. In the generations that followed his influence has been passed on, and many of todays quality American blacks are based on his standard although none have rivaled his show record. It is only hoped that his like will be seen again in the show ring.